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Modern india

The process of British conquest of various parts of India extended over a period of nearly a century. The English suffered many diplomatic failures and some military but ultimately emerged victorious. A number of causes explain the victory of the British against their Indian adversaries.

The British were superior in arms, military tactics and strategy. The firearms used by Indian powers in the 18th century were slow firing and cumbersome and were outclassed both in quick firing and in range by European muskets and cannons used by the English. Again European infantry could fire three times more quickly than the heavy Indian forces. Many Indian rulers including Nizams, the Mysoreans and the Marathas imported European arms, employed European officers to train their troops in the use of European arms. Unfortunately Indian military officers and the rank and file could never rise above the level of amateurs and as such could not be match for English officers and trained armies.

The English had the advantage of military discipline. The company ensured loyalty of sepoys by strict discipline and regular payment of salaries. On the other hand most of the Indian rulers suffered the chronic problem of lack of means to pay salaries; some of the Maratha chiefs had to divert their campaigns for collecting revenues on personal retinues or mercenary soldiers who were deficient in military discipline and could mutiny or desert to the enemy when victory seemed doubtful.

The English had the advantage of civil discipline of the Company's servants. Men of discipline without any hereditary connections or ties directed the Company's army. Further European military officers were given command of armies only after rigorous discipline; they were reliable as well as skillful and were given overall direction of affairs. In contrast Indian military command was usually given on caste basis to relatives whose military competence was doubtful and who could prove refractory or disloyal to sub serve their personal ambitions.

The brilliant leadership gave the English another advantage. Clive, Warren Hastings, Elphinstone, Munro, Wellesley, Lord Hastings and Dalhousie etc. displayed rare qualities of leadership. They had the advantages of a long list of secondary leaders like Lord Lake, Arthur Wellesley who fought not for the leader but for cause and the glory of their country. The Indian side too had brilliant leaders like Haider Ali, Tipu Sultan, Scindhia, Nana Phadnavis and Ranjit Singh etc. but they more often lacked a team of second line trained personnel. Indian leaders were fighting against one another as against the British.

The British were superior in economic resources. The East India Company never ignored the trade and commerce. Towards the end of the 18th century the company's foreign trade crossed 10 crores dollars. The East India Company earned enough profits in India to pay dividends to their shareholders and finance their military campaigns in India. England was also earning profits from her trade with the rest of the world. These natural resources in money and troops were available to the British in India in times of need thanks to the advantage of superior sea power that Britain possessed.

Questions and Answers

  1. Short Question and Answers

Governor Generals and Viceroys in Colonial India

  1. Introduction
  2. Robert Clive
  3. Warren Hastings
  4. Lord Cornwallis
  5. Sir John Shore
  6. Lord Wellesley
  7. George Barl
  8. Lord Minto I
  9. Lord Hastings
  10. Lord Amherst
  11. Lord William Bentinck
  12. Lord Charles Metcalfe
  13. Lord Auckland
  14. Lord Ellenborough
  15. Lord Hardinge
  16. Lord Dalhousie
  17. Lord Canning
  18. Lord Elgin
  19. Sir John Lawrence
  20. Lord Mayo
  21. Lord Northbrook
  22. Lord Lytton
  23. Lord Ripon
  24. Lord Dufferin
  25. Lord Landsdowne
  26. Lord Elgin II
  27. Lord Curzon
  28. Lord Minto II
  29. Lord Hardinge II
  30. Lord Chelmsford
  31. Lord Reading
  32. Lord Irwin
  33. Lord Willingdon
  34. Lord Linlithgow
  35. Lord Wavell
  36. Lord Mountbatten
  37. C Rajagopalachari

Carnatic Wars

  1. First Carnatic War
  2. Second Carnatic War
  3. Treaty of Pondicherry
  4. Third Carnatic War

Press under British Rule

From Social religious reform movements 19th century

  1. Brahmo Samaj
  2. Young Bengal Movement
  3. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
  4. Veda Samaj and Prathana Samaj
  5. Rama Krishna and Vivekananda
  6. Arya Samaj
  7. Theosophical Society
  8. Sayyid Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh Movement
  9. Cultural awakening

From Swaraj to Complete Independence

  1. Gandhiji’s contribution to nationalist movement
  2. Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
  3. Rowlatt Act
  4. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
  5. Khilafat Movement
  6. Non –Cooperation Movement
  7. Civil Disobedience Movement
  8. Simon Commission
  9. Meerut Conspiracy Case
  10. Lahore Conspiracy Case
  11. Gandhi-Irwin Pact
  12. Karachi Session
  13. Government of India Act 1935
  14. Lucknow Session
  15. Elections for Constituent Assembly
  16. Cripps Mission
  17. Quit India Movement
  18. Subhas Chandra Bose and INA
  19. Demand for Pakistan
  20. National movement and II World War
  21. India wins Independence and Partition

Annexation of Punjab

  1. First Anglo- Sikh War (1845-1846)
  2. Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849)

Anglo Burmese Wars

  1. First Burmese War (1823-1826)
  2. Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852-1853)
  3. Third Anglo Burmese War (1885-1886)

Constitutional Developments

  1. Pitt’s India Act (1784)
  2. Importance of Pitt’s India Act
  3. The Act of 1786
  4. Charter Act of 1793
  5. Charter Act of 1813
  6. Charter Act of 1853
  7. Basic Tenets of India’s Foreign Policy (1947-1961)
  8. Some Important Acts and year of Formation

Mysore Wars

  1. The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69)
  2. Treaty of Madras
  3. The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784)
  4. Treaty of Mangalore
  5. The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792)
  6. Treaty of Seringapatam
  7. The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799)

Anglo Maratha wars

War with Marathas

  1. First Anglo Maratha War (1775-82)
  2. Second Anglo- Maratha War (1803-1806)
  3. Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818)

Anglo-Maratha Treaties

  1. Treaty of Surat (1775)
  2. Treaty of Purandhar (1776)
  3. Treaty of Wadgaon (1779)
  4. Treaty of Salbai (1782)
  5. Treaty of Bassein (1802)
  6. Treaty of Deogaon (1803)
  7. Treaty of Surji Arjangaon (1803)
  8. Treaty of Rajpurghat(1805)
  9. Treaty of Poona (1817)
  10. Treaty of Gwalior (1817)
  11. Treaty of Mandasor (1818)

Early Resistance Movements against the British Rule

  1. Sannyasi and Fakir Uprisings in Bengal
  2. Faraizi Movement (1804-1860)
  3. Wahabi Movement (1820-1870)
  4. Kuka Movement in the Punjab (1860-1872)
  5. Santhal Rebellion (1855-1856)

Economic Impact of British Rule

  1. Land Settlements
  2. Growth of intermediary interest in Land
  3. Commercialization of Agriculture
  4. Growth of agricultural laborers
  5. Rise of new money lending class
  6. Destruction of handicrafts and cottage industries
  7. Drain of wealth

Early Phase of National Movement

  1. Growth of Political Awareness
  2. Vernacular Press Act
  3. Ilbert Bill
  4. Partition of Bengal (1905-1914)
  5. Indian National Congress
  6. Swadeshi Movement
  7. Swaraj
  8. Calcutta Session (1906)
  9. Surat Session (1907)
  10. Lucknow Session (1916)
  11. Morley-Minto Reforms (1909)
  12. Revolutionary Terrorism
  13. Muslim League
  14. Nationalists and the First World War
  15. 16.Home Rule League

Regional States

  1. Bengal
  2. Hyderabad
  3. Awadh
  4. Mysore

Integration of Native States

Education in British India

Indian Society in Colonial Period

Famines and British Rule