Lord Cornawallis (1786-1793)

  • Father of civil services in India
  • Codified laws –Cornawallis code. The features were as following

  • It was based on the concept of separation of powers.
  • The collector was the head of the revenue administration and divested him of all the judicial and magisterial powers.
  • District judge was appointed as the head of the judiciary at the district level.
  • A gradation of civil courts was set up.
  • The distinction between revenue and civil cases was abolished.
  • Changed laws of criminal justice which were patterned on Muslim Criminal Law.

    In 1920 Aligarh Muslim University was founded.

    Introduced Permanent Settlement in 1793
    Introduced the institution of District judge and DSP.
    Introduced the principle of Separation of powers by the Regulating Act of 1793.
    Separated the revenue administration from the administration of justice.The district Faujdari adalats presided over by Indian judges abolished and in their place four circuit courts were established presided over by the European covenanted servants.
    Third Anglo- Mysore War 1790-92 and Treaty of Seringapatnam.
    The number of collectorship reduced from 36 to 23.
    The strength of Board of Trade was reduced from 11 to 5.