Non – Cooperation Movement

In 1920 the Congress adopted the new programme of non-violent Non-Cooperation under the leadership of Gandhiji.The aims of the Non-Cooperation movement were to redress the wrongs done to Punjab and Turkey and the attainment of Swaraj.It was to proceed in stages beginning with the renunciation of titles to be followed by the boycott of the legislatures, law courts and educational institutions and the campaign of non payment of taxes. It was decided to organize a corps of 150,000 volunteers to carry on the campaign of Non-Cooperation. The Non-Cooperation movement was a great success. In the elections to the legislatures about 2/3 of voters did not vote. Educational institutions were deserted. A new programme of national education was started. Institutions such as Jamia Milia and Kashi Vidya Peeth were established. Many Indians resigned their govt jobs. Foreign clothes were burnt in bonfires. There were strikes in all over the country. In Malabar the Moplah rebellion broke out. Thousands of persons enrolled themselves as volunteers.

In the midst of the movement the Prince of Wales arrived in India. On the day of his arrival he was greeted by general strikes and demonstrations. At many places police resorted to firing at the demonstrators. The repression continued and by the end of the year all the top leaders were arrested. By the beginning of 1922 about 30,000 persons were in jail.Early in Feb 1922 Gandhiji decided to launch a no-tax campaign in Bardoli district in Gujarat. However in Chauri Chaura people turned violent and set fire to a police station causing the death of 22 policemen. When the news reached Gandhiji, he decided to call off the Non Cooperation movement. The working committee of the Congress met on 12 Feb 1922 and decided to concentrate on the popularization of charkha, promotion of Hindu-Muslim unity and combating of untouchability