Chandragupta I was succeeded by his son, Samudragupta who became the ruler after subduing his rival Kacha an obscure prince of the dynasty. The Allahabad Pillar Inscription written by Harisena gives a detailed account of the conquests of his royal master. This account contains a long list of states, kings and tribes which were conquered and brought under various degrees of subjugation. This list can be divided into four categories. 1. The first one includes the 12 states of Dakshinapatha with the names of their kings who were captured and then liberated and reinstated. They were Kosala, Pistapura, Kanchi, Vengi, Erandapalli, Devarashtra, Avamukta, Dusthalapura, Mahakantara, Kurala, Kothura and Palakka. 2. The second one contains the names of the 8 kings of Aryavarta who were exterminated. 3. The third one consists of the rulers of forest states who were reduced to servitude and the chiefs of five pratyantas or Border States and also nine tribal republics that were forced to pay all kinds of taxes, obey his orders and come to perform obeisance. The states were Samtata, Davaka, Kamrupa, Nepal and Kartipura.

4. The fourth one includes the Daivapura Shahanushahs, Saka Murundas and the dwellers of Sinhala and all other islands who offered their person for service to Samudragupta. Harisena the court poet of Samudragupta lays special emphasis upon Samudragupta's learning and wisdom, sharp and polished intellect and above all his poetical and musical talents. He also refers to Samudragupta's charity and kindness even to conquered kings. The variety of gold coins issued by Samudragupta not only indicate the power, wealth and grandeur of his empire but also give us some idea of his appearance and insight into his personal qualities. The Guptas were followers of the Brahmanical religion and Samudragupta fully maintained the tradition of religious toleration.