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The Second phase of the unification of Italy

During this phase the states of central Italy were united with Piedmont-Sardinia.at the time of Austro-Sardinia war whole Italy was doused in the spirit of nationalism. At the same time the people of central Italy expelled the rulers of Parma, Modena and Tuscany. People removed the representatives of Pope from Bologna and Romagna and established temporary government there. Those regions passed a resolution and decided to merge with Sardinia. The government of England adopted the policy of non-interference and declared that Italians had a right to resolve their problems themselves. Austria and Prussia wanted to reinstall previous rulers on the thrones of central Italy but they could not do anything in the prevailing atmosphere.

Cavour bargained with Napoleon III on the question of Italy. It was decided that France would not raise objection on merging the states of Italy into Sardinia only if Nice and Savoy provinces were given to him. In 1860 through a referendum Parma, Modena, Tuscany, Bologna and Piyokenja decided to merge with Sardinia. The public of Nice and Savoy also voted for merger with France. Separation of Nice and Savoy from Italy was criticized. The area of Sardinia – Piedmont was doubled in the bargain. An Italian state was created comprising all regions of North Italy and Central Duchies except Venetia. With it the second phase of Italy’s unification ended.