The revolution of 1830 was brought about by the reactionary policies of Charles X.This Bourbon monarch wanted to reestablish the pre-revolution prestige of monarchy and this outlook forced the masses to raise the banner of revolution. After the defeats of Napoleon in the battles of Leipzig and Waterloo old Bourbon dynasty was restored in France and Louis XVIII was placed on throne.
In 1824 the king died without leaving any natural heir and he was succeeded by his younger brother Charles X.This new French monarch was reactionary in his outlook. When he rose to the throne the French citizens had lot of expectations from him and he was welcomed by them. But his reactionary outlook turned the popular mood against him very soon. He passed the Act to reestablish the supremacy of Catholic Church in France. He also issued order to compensate all those citizens who had suffered during revolution and especially those citizens who were declared the enemies of revolution.
The order of Charles X was against the spirit of French Revolution of 1789 because of this these orders turned the popular mood against him. He continued his reactionary policies and attempts to re-establish the old glory of Bourbon monarchy. On July 26 1830 he issued orders which included dissolution of House of Deputies, Restrictions on the freedom of press, Limitations on adult franchise and changes in electoral system. When these orders were published in newspapers next day the resentment of the masses erupted against the Bourbon absolutism in the form of a revolution. This terrified Charles X who was forced to flee Paris.
The Revolution of 1830 was inspired by liberal and progressive ideas of the Revolution of 1789.This was against the absolutism and reactionary attitude of Charles X.This revolution was dominated by bourgeois ideals as it was initiated and led by them. It was also inspired by Constitutionalism as the common masses were against the monarchy and raised the banner of revolt. It was essentially a political movement as the social, economic and other aspects of human life were left untouched by this revolution.
The impact of the revolution was limited to some parts in France. The downfall of Charles X established peace and order in France. It was Pan-European in character. It inspired the common masses against absolutism and reactionary rule in Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Belgium as well.
The Revolution of 1830 was quite successful in both France and other parts of Europe. In France it led to the downfall of Bourbon dynasty and beginning of the rule of Orleans dynasty. The hereditary monarchy was replaced by constitutional monarchy and new constitution was enacted in France after the success of the revolution. The education was made free the control of Church once again in France and it was put under state control. The secular character of religion was guaranteed for every citizen.
The revolution was also successful in Belgium. The Conference of Powers organized in London to discuss the issues raised by Revolution of 1830 recognized Belgium independence. The revolution marked the success of nationalism. The Revolution was successful in Spain and Portugal as well and the rulers of these states granted liberal constitution. Liberal Constitution was also granted in Switzerland.
The revolutions in Italy, Prussia and Austria were suppressed by reactionary Metternich and old order was restored in these parts of the Europe. The revolt of Polish peasants was suppressed by Czar Nicolas I of Russia. The Revolution inspired new process of reforms in Britain and because of this the Reform Act of 1832 was enacted. This Act led to the process of Constitutional reforms in Britain to new heights and much more clarity.