Early Stone Age tools have been found in different areas of the
subcontinent the most notable among which are the Potwar plain in
north-western Punjab; the Beas and Banganga valleys; Nevasa in the
valley of Pravara, a tributary of the Godavary; Gudalur in Gundlakamma
basin in Andhra Pradesh; Nagarjunakonda in the Krishna valley, a string
of sites (Vadamadurai, Attirampakkam etc) in the coastal plain near
Chennai and the districts along the north bank of the Mahanadi in
Orissa. Primitive man used tools and implements of rough stone. Flint
was commonly used as it is hard but flakes easily. Tools serve a variety
of purposes such as skinning of dead animals, cutting their flesh and
splitting bones etc. Man during this period was essentially a food
gatherer. He was totally dependent on nature for his food supply;
requirement of game animals and edible plants. In course of time he
learnt to control fire which helped improve the pattern of living in
He used the skins of animals, barks of trees and large leaves as clothes. Men were organized in small wandering groups consisting of few men, women and children. It was towards the end of the Palaeolithic period that the modern human being (Homo Sapien) first appeared around 36,000 BC. The middle stone age cultures were around the date 33,000 BC to about 16,500 BC.
There are indications that in some regions like western Rajasthan and MP
the flake making technique was of a more improved variety than in others. These
regional variations in dates and the total cultural assemblage became more
prominent in the Late Stone age heralded by the use of smaller tools the
microliths. In MP, Gujarat, Rajasthan and several other areas a long time span
of 8500 BC-1700 BC has been suggested for these cultures.
Microliths being compound tools suggest a substantial technological change being hafted in bone, wood or bamboo. Atleast in few areas along with the microliths the technique of pot making a technique of great significance in human history as it came to be closely associated with food production and settled life. Langhnaj in Gujarat and Adamgarh in MP suggest presence of domesticated animals and exchange of commodities between different areas and communities.