After the death of Shivaji in 1680 ,Sambhaji , his eldest son ascended the throne. In 1680-81 when Aurangzeb was engaged in the Rajput war,Sambhaji renewed war with the Mughals ,raided Burhanpur and even attempted an attack on Ahmadnagar. In 1685- 86,Aurangzeb captured Bijapur and Golconda and he turned his attention on Marathas. Many of their forts were captured and Sambhaji moved to Sangameshwar.In 1689 Muqarrab Khan ,the Mughal general made a surprise attack and captured Sambhaji. He was executed later.
Raja Ram ( 1689-1700)
In 1689 Rajaram stepbrother of Sambhaji was proclaimed king by the Maratha council of ministers and was crowned at Raigarh.Rajaram left Raigarh and reached Jinji and it remained the center of Maratha activity against the Mughals. The Mughals under Zulfikar Khan captured Jinji. All members of Sambhaji's family were captured and his son Sahu was made a prisoner who remained in Mughal captivity till the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. The Maratha leaders and commanders organized the resistance to the Mughals in the Deccan. Before Jinji’s capture by Mughals, Rajaram escaped to Satara where he organized a new state army and brought all the Marathas generals under his banner. He also levied Chauth and Sardheshmukhi from Kandesh,Berar and Baglana. In 1699 Satara was attacked by Aurangzeb and captured after the death of Rajaram in 1700.
Tarabai ( 1700-1707)
After the death of Rajaram, Tarabai ,Rajaram's widow put Shivaji II her son on the throne and became regent. She took keen interest in the state’s affairs. Mughals annexed the fort of Pali,Pankala,Konndana and Khelna.In 1703 the Marathas attacked Berar and 1706 Gujarat. Sambhaji’s son Sahu was released in 1707 by Aurangzeb’s son Bahadur Shah I. He was recognized as the rightful ruler of Marathas and his right to the Maratha swaraj and to Chauth and Sardeshmukhi of the Deccani states of the Mughals was also recognized. This period saw a struggle between the two groups of the Marathas. Tarabai declared Sahu as an imposter and attacked him. As a result a civil war broke out between the forces of Tarabai and Sahu that lasted up to 1708. Tarabai retired to Kolhapur with her son Shivaji II. When Shivaji II died his step- brother Sambhaji II was put on the throne of Kolhapur. The relations between Sahu and Sambhaji were not cordial. However in 1731 the treaty of Warna was signed between Sahu and Sambhaji that provided that Sambhaji would rule over southern part of the Maratha kingdom with Kolhapur as its capital and northern part with the capital at Satara should be given to Sahu. The treaty of 1731 resolved the differences between Satara and Kolhapur .