The 23rd Session of the Congress was held at Surat.It very important from points of view. There was an open clash between the Moderates and the Extremists and ultimately it led to a split in the Congress. The Extremists wanted to hold the session at Nagpur as was decided at the Calcutta Session of the Congress but the Moderates wanted to hold the session at Surat. The Extremists wanted to make either Tilak or Lala Lajpat Rai as the President of the session while the Moderates wanted to make Sh Ras Bihari Ghosh as the President. The Moderates wanted to recede from the policy laid down in the Calcutta Congress and tried to exclude the resolutions on Swadeshi, Boycott and National Education as were passed by the Calcutta Congress. But the Extremists were not prepared to do so. While the leadership of the Congress remained in the hands of the Moderates for some time more the Extremists worked separately till 1916.