Indian National Congress

The Indian National Movement got a great impetus after the foundation of the Indian National Congress in 1885 A.D.It was A.O Hume a retired member of the Indian Civil Service who took the initiative in this direction. The National Movement in its early phase (1885-1905) was dominated by the Moderate leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendra Nath Banerjee, and Pheroze Shah Mehta. Their main objectives during this period were following: The early nationalists demanded wider powers for the councils as well as training in self-govt.In the economic field they demanded the removal of poverty by the rapid development of agriculture and modern industries. In the administrative field they made a demand for Indianisation of the higher administrative services. For the defence of their civil rights they demanded the freedom of speech and press. The moderate leaders tried to create the national consciousness and raise the public opinion against the British imperialism.

Infact during this period (1885-1905) the national leadership tried to give a common political and economic programme to their countrymen and tried to continue the national struggle from a common platform. As the aims of the Congress during 1885-1905 were quite moderate so were its methods. The Congress led by the Moderates during this period adopted peaceful means to achieve their aims. They had full faith in the British sense of justice so they were friendly towards the British. They believed in constitutional reforms. They would send petitions year after year to the British Govt hoping that it would grant them freedom of its own accord. But as the British Govt refused to take them seriously the national movement after 1905 diverted towards the Extremists who did not hesitate in using extreme means to achieve their aims.