Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq laid the foundation of the Tughlaq dynasty. The Tughlaq was the personal name of the Ghiyasuddin. According to some scholars the Tughlaqs belonged to the race of Qarauna Turks. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq had to face numerous problems as the sultan. There were riots in various parts of the empire and the royal treasury was empty. He pursued a policy of reconciliation with the nobles and the people who were severely restricted under Alauddin. He liberalized administration in certain respects. He attempted to improve the finances of the state and perused a policy to encourage agriculture.
He put down revolts of Hindus in the Doab and in the neighborhood of Delhi while those who had offered opposition to Khusru were taken in the state service and granted jagirs. In 1321 he dispatched crowned prince Jauna Khan to reestablish Sultan's authority in the south. In 1325 when Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was returning after concluding his military campaign in Bengal, Prince Jauna Khan raised a wooden pavilion at Afghanpur village near Delhi to welcome the Sultan. The pavilion, under which the sultan was received, collapsed suddenly crushing the sultan under its debris.
Jauna Khan ascended the throne in 1325 with the title of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. He ruled up to 1351.He was the most remarkable sultans of Delhi. He was a profound scholar of Persian, a critic, a litterateur of repute and master of rhetoric. He preferred to depend on his own intellect rather than on traditional interpretation of the Ullema.Thus he offended the orthodox Muslim ullema by curbing their political influence. Different Scholars have divergent estimates of his character. During Muhammad Bin Tughlaq reign rebellions, famines and epidemics followed in such intermittent succession as they conformed to a predetermined plan to subject him to trial and ultimate failure. To promote public welfare he sought to introduce many reforms. But some of them were so novel and revolutionary in character that the people failed to realize their significance so that instead of helping them to make them success they offered a determined opposition.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq had to face a number of revolts. The first rebellion took place in 1326 and by 1351when the Sultan died in pursuit of a rebel he had to deal with as many as 34 rebellions, 27 of them in the south alone. The areas affected ranged from Multan in the northwest t o Bengal in the east and Malabar in the south. While going to Thatta in Sindh to punish Taghi the rebel, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq died in 1351.
Firoz Tughlaq succeeded Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. He lacked the temperament and courage of a successful ruler. He failed to recover the areas that had been lost to the sultanate. He started his reign with liberal ideas .He tried to please the nobles and set to ameliorate the distress caused to the people during the long and troubled reign of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. He led two campaigns into Bengal but was unsuccessful in both. Bengal was thus lost to the Sultanate. He also led a campaign against the ruler of Jajnagar in Orissa. He also dealt with rebellions in Gujarat and Thatta.Although the rebellions were crushed the army suffered great hardship due to losing its way in the Rann of Kutch. But his reign was a period of peace and quiet development. When Firoz Tughlaq died in 1388 a civil war broke out among his successors. His grandson took up the title of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq II succeeding Firoz Tughlaq. Within a year he fell victim to intrigue and beheaded in 1389.For next five years 3 sultans ï¿½€“ Abu Bakr, Muhammad Shah and Alauddin Sikander ruled. In 1390 Nasir-uddin entered Delhi and enthroned himself. He was the last sultan of the dynasty and ruled from 1390 to 1412.During his reign Timur the great Mongol leader of Central Asia invaded India.Timur's invasion dealt a fatal blow to the Tughlaq dynasty and the Sultanate of Delhi.Nasiruddin died in 1412.1. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq