After Qutub-ud-din Aibek his son Aram Shah succeeded the throne. He was not able to display the skill of conquests and administration shone by his forerunners. His rule was over thrown by Iltutmish with the support of the nobles. A battle followed in which Aram Shah was defeated and killed. In 1211 AD Iltutmish came to the throne. He was also known as Shamsuddin. He spent his days in retrieving the lost territories of Qutub-ud-din Aibek and also added Malwa and Sind. During the reign of Iltutmish he fought against the rival slave chiefs Yildiz and Qabacha. At the battlefield of Tarain Yildiz was defeated. Iltutmish also faced danger from the Mongols led by Chingiz Khan. In his diplomatic decision he avoided the conflict with the mighty Mongol by preventing Jalal-ud-din the ruler of Khawarism from coming to India. Another major threat to the power of Iltutmish was the independent Rajput rulers who in spite of their rivalry could pose a serious danger to the Sultanat. In 1226 AD he attacked Ranthambor and Mansor. He also occupied Ajmer, Jalor, Nagor.

In 1229 Gwalior was occupied and the fort of Kalinjar was plundered. Kannauj, Benaras and Badaun were under his dominion. In the year 1229AD the Caliph of Baghdad recognized him as Sultan. He brought order in Rohilkhand. He suppressed the revolt of Tughril Khan, the governor of Bengal. Iltutmish was the greatest ruler of 13th century India and a wise statesman. He was generous to talented people who willingly became the pillars of the central administration.